Research on COVID 19

Especially for most vulnerable groups, the COVID-19 outbreak becomes live-challenging. Using prior assessments, we can link data sources and identify different at-risk groups among the most vulnerable in Pakistan are, such as Women-headed households; people with disabilities, chronically ill people; older people; households depending on daily work; religious minorities; and Afghan refugees. Being economically poor, having poor access to public health and socio-economic support systems, limited access to due to access barriers such as mobility or discrimination excludes these groups off from any assistance and means to ensure basic needs. Usual awareness campaigns might not reach these groups sufficiently, given problems in awareness targeting, e.g. lacking means of adjusting messages, ensuring the understanding of the messages, and overcoming other barriers. Female access to health care is often challenged given that women would hardly frequent health services alone, let alone during lockdown. Older people and people with disabilities are likely to remain neglected, given their specific mobility and participation barriers as well as potentially weaker health conditions and mainly no own income. Religious minorities in Pakistan still face discrimination. All these target people are already side-lined, COVID-19 is further pushing these communities and individuals into negative coping mechanism and life-threatening risk, especially so in humanitarian settings. These marginalized communities also have in common that mass media awareness campaigns do not reach them sufficiently and not include their specific needs. More targeted risk communication is required to keep everybody well informed and protected. The research will address these topics by stratifying the sample along the characteristics and conducting powered heterogeneity analyses.